We investigated the protective and therapeutic effects of molsidomine (MOL) in a rat model of whole brain radiotherapy (RT). Forty female rats were divided into five groups of eight: group 1, control; group 2, 15 Gy single dose RT (RT); group 3, 4 mg/kg MOL treated for 5 days (MOL); group 4, 4 mg/kg MOL for 5 days, 10 days after RT treatment (RT + MOL); group 5, 4 mg/kg MOL treatment for 5 days before RT treatment and for 5 days after RT treatment (MOL + RT). All rats were sacrificed on day 16. Neurodegenerative changes in the brain and tissue levels of oxidants and antioxidants were evaluated. The oxidative parameters were increased and antioxidant status was decreased in group RT compared to groups MOL + RT and RT + MOL. Histopathological examination showed that treatment with MOL after RT application and treatment with MOL before RT treatment decreased neuronal degeneration. No difference in neuronal appearance was found between groups RT + MOL and MOL + RT. MOL treatment protected the nervous system of rats and may be a treatment option for preventing RT induced neural injury.