Aminoguanidine is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), with high selectivity for the inducible isoforrn (iNOS). In addition to being all inhibitor of NOS, aminoguanidine also exhibits antioxidant activity. Recent studies suggest that aminoguanidine reduces ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced damage. However, the role of aminoguanidine, in renal injury associated with I/R remains unknown. This Study was designed to investigate the effects of aminoguanidine on renal I/R injury. There were three groups of eight rats each. I/R was induced by occlusion of the left renal vessels for 60 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion in rats. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a stable metabolite of the free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation cascade, were found to be significantly higher in the I/R group (30.3 +/- 0.1 nmol g(-1) tissue) than in the control group (10 +/- 0.05 nmol g(-1)). Aminoguanidine (100 mg kg(-1)) administration to rats significantly reduced the MDA values. We also demonstrated that I/R leads to structural change but aminoguanidine did not reverse this change. Aminoguanidine, according to the biochemical finding is protective but histopathological findings did not reveal protection against I/R injury in kidney. The effects of aminoguanidine on I/R-induced damage remain a subject for future investigations. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Soils, Ltd.